A Systematic Review of Minor Phytocannabinoids with Promising Neuroprotective Potential.
Embase and Pubmed were systematically searched for articles addressing the neuroprotective properties of phytocannabinoids, aside from cannabidiol and Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, including Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9 -THCA), Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9 -THCV), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabichromenic acid (CBCA), cannabichromevarin (CBCV), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabigerivarin (CBGV), cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA), cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA) cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and cannabinol (CBN). Out of 2,341 studies, 31 articles met inclusion criteria. CBG (range 5 mg.kg-1 to 20 mg.kg-1 ) and CBDV (range 0.2 mg.kg-1 to 400 mg.kg-1 ) displayed efficacy in models of Huntington’s disease and epilepsy. CBC (10-75 mg.kg-1 ), Δ9 -THCA (20 mg.kg-1 ) and Δ9 -THCV (range 0.025-2.5 mg.kg-1 ) showed promise in models of seizure and hypomobility, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease. Limited mechanistic data showed CBG, VCE.003, VCE.003.2 and Δ9 -THCA mediated some of their effects through PPARy, but no other receptors were probed. Further studies with these phytocannabinoids, and their combinations, are warranted across a range of neurodegenerative disorders.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s; Huntington’s; Phytocannabinoids; epilepsy; neurodegeneration; neuroprotection.
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