Propagation of Cannabis for Clinical Research: An Approach Towards a Modern Herbal Medicinal Products Development.


Review

. 2020 Jun 26;11:958.

doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.00958. eCollection 2020.

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Review

Suman Chandra et al. Front Plant Sci. .

Abstract

Cannabis has been reported to contain over 560 different compounds, out of which 120 are cannabinoids. Among the cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol are the two major compounds with very different pharmacological profile and a tremendous therapeutic potential. However, there are many challenges in bringing cannabis from grow-farms to pharmaceuticals. Among many, one important challenge is to maintain the supply chain of biomass, which is consistent in its cannabinoids profile. To maintain this process, male plants are removed from growing fields as they appear. Even with that practice, still there are fair chances of cross fertilization. Therefore, controlled indoor cultivation for screening, selection of high yielding female plants based on their cannabinoids profile, and their conservation and multiplication using vegetative propagation and/or micropropagation is a suitable path to ensure consistency in biomass material. In this chapter, the botany and propagation of elite cannabis varieties will be discussed.

Keywords: cannabidiol; cannabis; micropropagation; tetrahydrocannabinol; vegetative propagation.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 1

Molecular structures of major phytocannabinoids. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Figure 2

Figure 2

Biosynthesis of major phytocannabinoids. Δ9-THC and CBD. 1: Polyketide synthase (PKS), 2: Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) synthase, 3: Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) synthase, 4: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA) synthase, 5: Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) synthase, 6: Isomerase and 7: Olivetol synthase. GPP: Geranyl diphosphate and NPP: Neryl diphosphate.

Figure 3

Figure 3

Representative cannabis varieties, (A) Drug type variety and (B) Fiber type variety.

Figure 4

Figure 4

Schematic diagram of screening of elite cannabis clones.

Figure 5

Figure 5

Indoor cultivation of Cannabis sativa L.

Figure 6

Figure 6

Micropropagation of Cannabis sativa L. (A, B) Formation of shoots, (C, D) Initiation of rooting, (E) Well acclimatized rooted plants in jiffy pots, and (F) Fully grown in vitro raised plants at vegetative stage.

Figure 7

Figure 7

Outdoor cultivation of Cannabis sativa L.

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