Validation of the 4-aminophenol color test for the differentiation of marijuana-type and hemp-type cannabis.


. 2020 Sep 21.

doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14562. Online ahead of print.

Affiliations

Item in Clipboard

Kenna Lewis et al. J Forensic Sci. .

Abstract

The analysis of cannabis plant material submitted to seized-drug laboratories was significantly affected by the signing of the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, which defined hemp and removed it from the definition of marijuana in the Controlled Substances Act. As a result, field law enforcement personnel and forensic laboratories now are in need of implementing new protocols that can distinguish between marijuana-type and hemp-type cannabis. Colorimetric tests provide a cost-effective and efficient manner to presumptively identify materials prior to submission to a laboratory for analysis. This work presents the validation of the 4-aminophenol (4-AP) color test and demonstrates its utility for discriminating between marijuana-type and hemp-type cannabis (i.e., typification). Validation studies included the testing of numerous cannabinoid reference materials, household herbs, previously characterized cannabis plant samples, and real-case samples. The 4-AP test reliably produces a pink result when the level of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is approximately three times lower than the level of cannabidiol (CBD). A blue result is generated when the level of THC is approximately three times higher than that of CBD. Inconclusive results are observed when the levels of THC and CBD are within a factor of three from each other, demonstrating the limitations of the test under those scenarios.

Similar articles

References

    1. Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018, Pub. L. 115-334, 132 Stat 4908 (Dec. 20, 2018). https://www.congr​ess.gov/bill/115th​-congr​ess/house​-bill/2/text/pl?overv​iew=closed. Accessed July 20, 2020.
    1. Federal Register / Vol. 84, No. 211 Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 990 [Doc. No. AMS-SC-19-0042; SC19-990-2 IR] Establishment of a Domestic Hemp Production Program. https://www.feder​alreg​ister.gov/docum​ents/2019/10/31/2019-23749/​estab​lishm​ent-of-a-domes​tic-hemp-produ​ction​-program. Accessed 29 Feb 2020.
    1. Chandra S, Lata H, ElSohly MA, editors. Cannabis sativa L. – botany and biotechnology. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG; 2017. p. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54564​-6
    1. Barceloux DG. Medical toxicology of drug abuse: synthesized chemicals and psychoactive plants. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2012. p. 886-931.
    1. Mechoulam R. Marihuana chemistry. Science 1970;168:1159-65.

L’article Validation of the 4-aminophenol color test for the differentiation of marijuana-type and hemp-type cannabis. est apparu en premier sur Cannabis Belgique.

Comments are closed.

× Order via Whatsapp?